Diabetes is a disease that is associated with the problems in the proper functioning of the hormone insulin. Usually, the pancreas, which is located just behind the stomach, is what releases insulin into the bloodstream and helps the body store and use sugar and fat from the food you eat.
Diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce the required amount of insulin or when the body stops responding to insulin. There is no apparent cure for the disease but people with diabetes have to manage their disease if they need to stay healthy.
Types of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus or diabetes, as it is commonly known as is a metabolic disease that raises blood sugar levels. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys and other organs.
According to its occurrence and causes, diabetes is classified into various types:
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that can occur even in children. In this disease, the autoimmune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells and disturbs the production of insulin. The result is an increased sugar level in the blood and diabetes. Nearly 10 percent of diabetes patients have type 1 disease.
Type 2 Diabetes
This type of diabetes is widespread and mostly seen in adults. This occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin and sugar builds up in the blood.
This type of diabetes occurs during pregnancy. It happens when blood sugar levels are higher than usual. This is mostly attributed to the placenta producing insulin blocking hormones.
Symptoms of Diabetes
There are many symptoms associated with diabetes and which helps diagnose pre-diabetes or diabetes disease. The general symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, sudden weight loss, blurry vision, extreme fatigue, wounds that won’t heal.
In addition to the general symptoms, men may show decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction and reduced muscle strength whereas women will have urinary tract infections, yeast infection and dry itchy skin.
What Causes Diabetes?
Each type of diabetes is caused by different reasons. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and causes the diseases. Research has not answered the question of why this happens.
Whereas Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of factors like genetics and lifestyle factors. Obesity and extra fat in the belly also are said to impair insulin function and increase the risk of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is caused due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and women who are overweight and get pregnant are more likely to develop diabetes.
Since there is no cure as such, lifestyle modifications and some medications help in managing diabetes. If not managed properly, then it will lead to life-threatening health problems.